Computers Take Over The World (Extended Mix) !EXCLUSIVE!
Morris was a talented computer scientist who had graduated from Harvard in June 1988. He had grown up immersed in computers thanks to his father, who was an early innovator at Bell Labs. At Harvard, Morris was known for his technological prowess, especially in Unix; he was also known as a prankster. After being accepted into Cornell that August, he began developing a program that could spread slowly and secretly across the Internet. To cover his tracks, he released it by hacking into an MIT computer from his Cornell terminal in Ithaca, New York.
Computers Take Over The World (Extended Mix)
The idea of machines overcoming humans can be intrinsically related to conscious machines. Surpassing humans would mean replicating, reaching and exceeding key distinctive properties of human beings, for example, high-level cognition associated with conscious perception. However, can computers be compared with humans? Can computers become conscious? Can computers outstrip human capabilities? These are paradoxical and controversial questions, particularly because there are many hidden assumptions and misconceptions about the understanding of the brain. In this sense, it is necessary to first explore these assumptions and then suggest how the specific information processing of brains would be replicated by machines. Therefore, this article will discuss a subset of human capabilities and the connection with conscious behavior, secondly, a prototype theory of consciousness will be explored and machines will be classified according to this framework. Finally, this analysis will show the paradoxical conclusion that trying to achieve conscious machines to beat humans implies that computers will never completely exceed human capabilities, or if the computer were to do it, the machine should not be considered a computer anymore.
IBM noticed the successes that we were having building this machine on a shoestring budget and thought it would be interesting to have a group of us join IBM Research [in late 1989] to develop the next generation of this machine, called Deep Blue. They wanted to know if there was something special about the very best chess players in the world that was beyond what computers were capable of for the foreseeable future. Our feeling was that it was within a few years of being done, although other researchers thought it was still decades away.
Along these lines, one obvious application for GPTZero is to help teachers identify whether their students are plagiarizing their essays from ChatGPT. "Teachers from all over the world are worried about this," Tian says.
AlphaGo then competed against legendary Go player Mr Lee Sedol, the winner of 18 world titles, who is widely considered the greatest player of the past decade. AlphaGo's 4-1 victory in Seoul, South Korea, on March 2016 was watched by over 200 million people worldwide. This landmark achievement was a decade ahead of its time.
So what happened to the original wave of government-backed free software? Basically, as the federal government let go of its commitment to integrated and open-software standards, it opened the door for private companies to take over the market with "proprietary" software programs--programs whose coding was kept secret and whose operating protocols were not public or standardized. Which is the main reason the average PC user is now stuck dealing with operating systems that are compatible with only some software programs, and with software programs that are incompatible with many other software programs. This, in turn, is how the way was cleared for a corporate giant like Microsoft to dominate the computing world by making its own proprietary software (namely, the Windows operating system) the de facto standard.
ARPA's network harnessed the resources of universities to provide a continuous stream of free software to improve its functionality. Innovations could ricochet almost instantly across the nation, even the world, without the friction of normal distribution or purchase costs. A classic example of such an innovation is SENDMAIL, a program hacked by a Berkeley student named Eric Allman to assist network managers in processing e-mail traffic; Allman's program is used today to direct over 75 percent of Internet e-mail traffic. Others at Berkeley created the Berkeley Internet Name Daemon (BIND) program, which directs Internet traffic by site name--like www.prospect.org--so that we don't have to type numbers like 18.104.22.168 into our Web browsers.
Government funding helped support new software as a font of innovation on the Internet; government supervision helped maintain the standardization required for easy compatibility among the wide range of computers increasingly sharing resources on the Net. Despite odes to the "anarchy" of the Internet, its creation conformed to government specifications while marshaling the broad professional, volunteer, and eventually commercial resources of the emerging computer elite. In fact, the government's very deftness in pooling these resources helped render it effectively invisible. The broad consensus the government built over the Internet's shape gave the network's design so much legitimacy that it was seen less as a creation of "the government" and more as a creation of society as a whole. At each step of its development, ARPA and associated government agencies expanded participation to an ever-widening set of experts and technological leaders who, in turn, would encourage others in their academic, scientific, community, or business realm to support the effective development of the Internet.
Created initially at Bell Labs, UNIX was the first operating system developed to be independent of specific hardware (earlier systems were designed for specific machines). It was especially popular with ARPANET programmers working to create an integrated set of software tools for managing their emerging network, so UNIX's early life was due largely to government subsidy. In the late 1970s, ARPA funded researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, to make substantial improvements in UNIX; for example, it paid to integrate Internet protocols into the software, allowing different computers on the network to talk to each other. Then, for a minimal licensing fee, Berkeley distributed its version of UNIX, now including Internet protocols, throughout academia and, after a time, into industry.
But what made UNIX nearly universal in corporate and highend computing in the 1980s was decisive action by the federal government. In 1986 the government passed regulations forbidding any company that did not offer a standard UNIX from bidding on any government computer contract. In 1988, when the Air Force declared the Digital Equipment Corporation's proprietary version of UNIX ineligible for government contracts, the entire higher-end computing world took it as a signal that they'd better adhere to strong UNIX standards. The result was that by the early 1990s, millions of high-performance computers used in government, university, finance, and engineering offices were already Internet-compatible.
But it was Netscape's next move that proved most devastating to the culture of open standards: Clark and Andreesen began giving Netscape Navigator away for free over the Internet, without paying any of the required license fees to NCSA. Netscape in effect "dumped" its browser onto the Internet, thereby undercutting the rest of the commercial browser companies, which were following government rules requiring a per-copy license fee to NCSA. Netscape, as the sole enhanced commercial browser flooding the Internet, was able to destroy NCSA-led standards and take over Internet-standards creation itself, the idea being that it could then sell high-priced server software that operated according to Netscape's proprietary standards.
In the 1980s, when open UNIX standards were threatened by private standards, the federal government intervened. So what did the government do to support NCSA's standards in the face of Netscape's assault in the early 1990s? Nothing. It made no investigations into possible monopoly practices, brought no lawsuit alleging intellectual property infringement, established no requirement that the federal government would use only NCSA-approved codes in government Web sites, made no announcements that it would refuse to buy any Web servers based on such nonstandard formatting. In short, it gave no sign at all of opposition to Netscape's take-over of the standards.
Netscape realized that its defiance of open standards did not go over well in the programming community. Thus, with an eye toward an inevitable battle with Microsoft, it tried to burnish its reputation among programmers by working with the old Internet fellowship of engineers on new standards. And when Microsoft appeared on the scene with its Internet Explorer browser--which appeared automatically on every Windows desktop--the grumblings over Netscape's proprietary advantage diminished. The greater fear now was of Microsoft taking over the whole computing world. Indeed, when Microsoft began giving its browser away at the end of 1995, any alternative browsers gave way to the twocompany fight between Netscape and Microsoft.
Many in Silicon Valley have become aware of the danger that proprietary technologies pose to the trust needed to sustain the collaborative model that has fueled the region's explosive growth. The greatest danger to such collaboration is, of course, Microsoft. Microsoft used a combination of its early alliance with IBM and predatory pricing tactics to build its operating-system monopoly. From there, Microsoft extended its proprietary standards into the market for largescale business computing, which had formerly been the province of mainframes or UNIXbased network servers. And while the Internet at first appeared to be a dagger at Microsoft's throat, threatening to disrupt its monopoly, Microsoft soon saw that manipulating Internet standards in a proprietary direction could extend the company's control throughout the whole world of corporate computing. By 1997 Microsoft NT computer servers were outselling UNIX servers. It was clear that in the absence of strong standards and government support for such standards, proprietary models had a decided advantage in yielding the market stability and monopoly rents that a company like Microsoft could reap. 041b061a72