Knowledge of the disintegration of solid foods in human stomach is essential to assess the bioavailability of nutrients in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A comprehensive review of food gastric digestion, focusing on disintegration of solid foods, is presented. Most of the research reviewed in this paper is contained in the medical, pharmaceutical, food, and nutritional literature. Stomach physiology is briefly introduced, including composition and rheological properties of gastric contents, stomach wall motility in fed/fasted states, and hydrodynamic and mechanical forces that act on the ingested food. In vivo and in vitro methods used for studying food and drug digestion in GI are summarized. Stomach emptying rate, which controls the rate of absorption of nutrients, is highly related to the disintegration of foods. This topic is highlighted with focus on the important mechanisms and the influence of chemical and physical properties of foods. Future research in this area is identified to increase our fundamental understanding of the food digestion process in the stomach as related to the food composition, material properties such as texture and microstructure, and chemical characteristics. This information is necessary to develop new guidelines for seeking innovative processing methods to manufacture foods specifically targeted for health.
The assessment of the in vitro disintegration profile of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDT) is very important in the evaluation and the development of new formulations of this type. So far neither the US Pharmacopoeia nor the European Pharmacopoeia has defined a specific disintegration test for RDT; currently, it is only possible to refer to the tests on dispersible or effervescent tablets for the evaluation of RDT's disintegration capacity. In the present study, we have evaluated the disintegration profile of RDT manufactured by main commercialised technologies, using the texture analyser (TA). In order to simulate as much as possible the oral disintegration of these dosage forms, a new operating structure was developed. This structure mimics the situation in the patient's mouth and provides a gradual elimination of the detached particles during the disintegration process. The obtained time-distance profiles or disintegration profiles enabled the calculation of certain quantitative values as the disintegration onset (t1) and the total disintegration time (t2). These values were used in the characterisation of the effect of test variables as the disintegration medium and temperature on the disintegration time of RDT. Moreover, the oral disintegration time of the same products was evaluated by 14 healthy volunteers. Results obtained when artificial saliva at 37 degrees C was employed as disintegration medium were used to correlate the in vitro (t2) and oral disintegration times. Excellent correlation was found and in addition, we were able to achieve a qualitative measure of the mouthfeel by comparing the thickness of the tablets and the penetration distance obtained from the disintegration profile. This method also permitted the discrimination between different RDT, where differences in the disintegration mechanism were reflected on the disintegration profile achieved for each tablet.
Context: Tablet disintegration is an important factor for drug release and can be modified with excipients called tablet disintegrants. Tablet disintegrants act via different mechanisms and the efficacy of these excipients is influenced by various factors.
Objective: In this review, the existing literature on tablet disintegration is critically reviewed. Potential disintegration mechanisms, as well as impact factors on the disintegration process will be discussed based on experimental evidence.
Methods: Search terms for Scopus and Web of Science included "tablet disintegration", "mechanism tablet disintegration", "superdisintegrants", "disintegrants", "swelling force", "disintegration force", "disintegration mechanisms", as well as brand names of commonly applied superdisintegrants. References of identified papers were screened as well.
Results: Experimental data supports swelling and shape recovery as main mechanisms of action of disintegrants. Other tablet excipients and different manufacturing techniques greatly influence the disintegration process.
None of these possibilities is particularly welcome to the many physicians who saw in health care integration a way to escape the business of medicine. No sooner than many doctors had begun to get used to a new practice style that is characteristic of integrated organizations, the market entered into what some call the age of disintegration.
If you can't heal the relationship and find that you need to take back your medical practice, you'll have to create some good new days instead. Physicians facing disintegration have several options, including these:
To determine what option would be best for your practice, you will need to approach disintegration as you would any major, new undertaking: with an effective due-diligence process. This may seem strange, particularly if you're planning to take back a practice you once managed. But keep in mind that the work of restructuring an integrated entity, or of dismantling it and starting the practice over independently, is as new and challenging as the original integration effort. Remember that the practice changed during the course of being integrated and that the infrastructure that is in place may not serve the medical group's needs once it becomes independent or enters into a different kind of integrated relationship.
Drug dosage forms must be tested for disintegration. The test is performed to ensure both maximum active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) contact is achieved with the media and subsequent API bioavailability. The disintegration test is an important quality control process. Whether the goal is disintegration testing of tablets or capsules, an automated disintegration apparatus helps ensure that the proper manufacturing controls are in place. The fully programmable Agilent 100 automated disintegration apparatus provides a reliable, compliant approach to disintegration testing. The reciprocating drive system, water bath, and heater/circulator are incorporated into a single instrument with a compact, bench space-saving design. The apparatus is available in a three-basket model and comes complete with accessories required to perform the standard United States Pharmacopeia disintegration test (USP ).
When an iceberg drifts northward and encounters warmer temperatures, it breaks apart much faster than it would if it remained near Antarctica. Within a few years or even months, the iceberg can undergo changes that might take decades along the Antarctic Peninsula. Although iceberg disintegration in warmer conditions occurs faster, the basic melt and disintegration process is the same.
This annex is the result of the Q4B process for Disintegration Test General Chapter. The proposed texts were submitted by the Pharmacopoeial Discussion Group. It aims to facilitate the recognition of pharmacopoeial procedures for the disintegration test by regulatory authorities in the ICH regions. It describes special requirements for this test to be considered interchangable for use in the ICH regions.
With the previous discovery of an active asteroid spouting six tails, named P/2013 P5, astronomers are finding more evidence the pressure of sunlight may be the primary force causing the disintegration of small asteroids -- less than a mile across-- in our solar system.
The expressions feelings of disintegration and disintegration anxieties refer to a feeling of extreme anxiety that the personality is "falling to pieces" or disintegrating into elements that are no longer connected together. This serious form of depersonalization has been described in the psychoses, particularly schizophrenia. It has been mainly evoked, however, with regard to the earliest stages of the infant's development and their consequences.
One psychological theory aims to clarify how such transformations occur, and the types of people who are likely to take advantage of such an opportunity for growth: the theory of positive disintegration.
In fact, it seems that only those Dąbrowski recognized as high potential or highly overexcitable individuals are propelled through all five levels and emerge with a fully formed, altruistic personality, while many find themselves stalled in one of the levels of disintegration (more on this later).
Like others before me, i have been doing all this my life. my favourite words are disintegration and reintegration. i am a70 year old woman recently diagnosed Autistic and am astonished that this has been written about in psychology. how amazing!
Becquerel is a unit used to quantify radiation intensity. One becquerel is defined as an amount that "one nucleus changes (disintegrates) per second." Since nuclei often emit radiation during disintegration, the becquerel is used as a unit to express the ability to emit radiation. In a rock with 1 Bq of radioactivity, for example, each nucleus of the radionuclide contained in the rock will disintegrate per second. 10 Bq means that 10 nuclei will disintegrate per second.
Once nuclei of a radionuclide disintegrate and the radionuclide becomes stable by emitting radiation, it will no longer emit radiation. Some types of radionuclides repeat disintegration multiple times until becoming stable.
On the basis, however, of present ideas about the behaviour of heavy nuclei6, an entirely different and essentially classical picture of these new disintegration processes suggests itself. On account of their close packing and strong energy exchange, the particles in a heavy nucleus would be expected to move in a collective way which has some resemblance to the movement of a liquid drop. If the movement is made sufficiently violent by adding energy, such a drop may divide itself into two smaller drops. 041b061a72